Here is the list of multiple-choice questions for the Business Research Methods course. The MCQs are collected and compiled from different online and offline sources.

Which of the following is not a type of research?

- Exploratory research
- Descriptive research
- Experimental research
**Conclusive research**

Research is a ______________ process.

- Random
**Continuous**- Discrete
- Static

_____________ is not a type of research.

- Applied research
- Exploratory research
- Descriptive research
**Emotional research**

What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research?

- Qualitative research uses numerical data while quantitative research uses non-numerical data
**Qualitative research is subjective while quantitative research is objective**- Qualitative research is exploratory while quantitative research is confirmatory
- Qualitative research is based on observation while quantitative research is based on experimentation

_____________ is an example of qualitative research.

- Survey
- Experiment
**Case study**- Randomized controlled trial

Which of the following is not a type of qualitative research?

- Ethnography
- Grounded theory
- Content analysis
**Experimental research**

What is the meaning of research?

**A systematic investigation to establish facts or principles**- A random collection of data
- An educated guess about a phenomenon
- A study of human behavior

_________________ is not a type of non-experimental research.

- Survey research
- Correlational research
**Quasi-experimental research**- Action research

Which of the following is a characteristic of non-scientific research methods?

- They are systematic and rigorous.
- They are always based on quantitative data.
**They rely on intuition and personal experience.**- They always involve the use of statistical analysis.

______________ of research aims to explore new ideas or areas of interest.

**Exploratory research**- Descriptive research
- Causal research
- Experimental research

Which type of research involves the collection and analysis of numerical data?

- Qualitative research
**Quantitative research**- Exploratory research
- Descriptive research

________________ research involves manipulating one or more variables to observe the effects on another variable.

- Exploratory research
- Descriptive research
- Causal research
**Experimental research**

Which type of research combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods?

- Quantitative research
- Qualitative research
**Mixed-methods research**- Action research

What is the first step in the research process?

- Collecting data
**Formulating a research question**- Analyzing data
- Writing a research report

Which of the following is NOT a research method?

- Observation
- Survey
- Experimentation
**Writing a research report**

Which type of sampling method involves selecting participants who are readily available?

- Random sampling
- Stratified sampling
**Convenience sampling**- Cluster sampling

What is the purpose of a research hypothesis?

- To summarize research findings
- To explain the research methodology
**To predict the outcome of the research**- To analyze data

Which type of data analysis involves identifying patterns and relationships in data?

- Descriptive statistics
- Inferential statistics
**Qualitative analysis**- Quantitative analysis

Which type of data analysis involves identifying patterns and relationships in data?

- Descriptive statistics
- Inferential statistics
**Qualitative analysis**- Quantitative analysis

What is the process of selecting a representative sample from a larger population called?

- Data analysis
- Problem identification
- Research design
**Sampling**

Which of the following is not a measure of central tendency?

- Mean
- Mode
**Range**- Median

What is the process of gathering information from sources such as books, journals, and websites called?

- Data analysis
- Problem identification
**Literature review**- Hypothesis testing

What is the process of organizing, summarizing, and analyzing data called?

**Data analysis**- Data collection
- Research design
- Sampling

_____________ is not a type of data collection method.

- Survey
- Experiment
- Interview
**Hypothesis testing**

What is the purpose of a research design?

- To collect data
- To analyze data
**To ensure the validity and reliability of the study**- To present the results of the study

What is the difference between probability and non-probability sampling?

- Probability sampling is more reliable than non-probability sampling
**Probability sampling involves selecting participants randomly while non-probability sampling does not**- Non-probability sampling is more representative than probability sampling
- There is no difference between probability and non-probability sampling

The measure of dispersion that is based on the difference between the largest and smallest values is the _________.

- Mean deviation
- Variance
**Range**- Standard deviation

Which of the following is not a type of research problem?

- Descriptive
- Exploratory
**Experimental**- Correlational

What is the process of identifying potential sources of data?

- Sampling
- Data collection
- Developing research questions
**Conducting a literature review**

The coefficient of variation is a measure of _________.

- Central tendency
- V
**ariability** - Dispersion
- Shape

Which of the following is an example of a null hypothesis?

- There is a positive relationship between education level and income
- There is a negative relationship between age and job performance
**There is no relationship between gender and job satisfaction**- There is a relationship between job satisfaction and salary

The standard error of the mean is a measure of _________.

- Central tendency
- Variability
- Dispersion
- P
**recision**

What is a one-tailed hypothesis?

**A hypothesis that predicts a specific direction of the relationship between variables**- A hypothesis that is based on previous research
- A hypothesis that is not specific
- A hypothesis that is only used in qualitative research

What type of hypothesis is used in exploratory research?

- Directional hypothesis
**Non-directional hypothesis**- Null hypothesis
- None of the above

The F-test is used to compare _________.

- Two means
- Two variances
- Two proportions
- T
**wo sample sizes**

Which of the following is a hypothesis that is developed based on a theory or conceptual framework?

**Theoretical hypothesis**- Empirical hypothesis
- Tentative hypothesis
- Working hypothesis

What type of exploratory research design involves a single participant being studied in depth?

**Case study**- Ethnography
- Survey research
- Experimental study

Which of the following is a type of research design that involves observing and recording the behavior of participants in a natural setting without any intervention?

- Quasi-experimental design
- Experimental design
**Observational design**- Correlational design

In quota sampling, the sample is selected based on:

- A random process
**Demographic characteristics**- Geographic location
- Availability

Which of the following is an example of exploratory research design?

- Cross-sectional study
- Experimental study
- Case study
**Focus group discussion**

What is a directional hypothesis?

**A hypothesis that predicts a specific direction of the relationship between variables**- A hypothesis that is based on previous research
- A hypothesis that is not specific
- A hypothesis that is only used in qualitative research

A non-probability sampling method is one in which:

- The sample is selected based on probability theory
**The sample is selected without regard to probability theory**- The sample size is determined by statistical analysis
- The sample is stratified into different groups

Which of the following is an example of a longitudinal research design?

- Cross-sectional study
- Case study
**Cohort study**- Experimental design

Which of the following best describes the purpose of qualitative research?

- To test a hypothesis
- To establish causation
- To collect quantitative data
**To explore and understand complex phenomena**

What is the main advantage of snowball sampling?

- It is easy to implement
- It is cost-effective
- It allows for the selection of a representative sample
**It allows for the inclusion of hard-to-reach populations**

Quota sampling is often used in:

**Market research**- Medical research
- Educational research
- Environmental research

Which of the following is not a common method of data collection in qualitative research?

**Surveys**- Interviews
- Focus groups
- Observation

The margin of error in a sample is affected by which of the following factors?

**The sample size**- The level of statistical significance
- The type of statistical analysis to be performed
- The population size

Which of the following is an appropriate sampling technique for qualitative research?

- Simple random sampling
- Stratified random sampling
**Convenience sampling**- Cluster sampling

When is snowball sampling most appropriate?

**When the population is highly heterogeneous**- When the population is highly homogeneous
- When the population is geographically dispersed
- When the population is easily accessible

Which of the following is a disadvantage of quota sampling?

- It is time-consuming
- It is expensive
- It is difficult to implement
**It may not be representative of the population**

The formula used to calculate the sample size is influenced by several factors. Which of the following is not one of those factors?

- The size of the target population
- The level of statistical significance
**The type of statistical analysis to be performed**- The desired margin of error

Which of the following is an advantage of cluster sampling?

- It is easy to implement
**It is cost-effective**- It is more representative than other sampling techniques
- It allows for greater precision in estimates

Quota sampling is a type of:

- Probability sampling
**Non-probability sampling**- Stratified sampling
- Cluster sampling

Which of the following is an appropriate sampling technique when the population size is unknown or difficult to define?

- Simple random sampling
**Snowball sampling**- Convenience sampling
- Quota sampling

A sampling frame is:

**The actual list of individuals or elements from which the sample will be selected**- The statistical technique used to estimate population parameters
- The number of participants needed to achieve a desired level of statistical power
- The type of sampling method used in the study

Which of the following statements is true about snowball sampling?

- It is a probability sampling technique
**It is a non-probability sampling technique**- It is a cluster sampling technique
- It is a stratified sampling technique

Which of the following is a limitation of snowball sampling?

- It can be time-consuming
- It can be expensive
**It can introduce bias**- It may not be feasible for large populations

What is the role of the independent variable in a causal research design?

**To be manipulated by the researcher**- To be measured by the researcher
- To be controlled by the researcher
- To be observed by the researcher

Which of the following is a potential limitation of using a causal research design?

- It may not be feasible for large populations
**It may not be ethical to manipulate variables**- It may not be appropriate for all research questions
- It may introduce bias into the study

In a causal research design, what is the role of the dependent variable?

- To be manipulated by the researcher
**To be measured by the researcher**- To be controlled by the researcher
- To be observed by the researcher

Which of the following is a common method of causal research design?

- Surveys
- Interviews
**Experiments**- Case studies

What is systematic sampling?

**A type of probability sampling**- A type of non-probability sampling
- A type of sampling used in experimental research
- A type of sampling used in survey research

A sample in which each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected is called:

- Convenience sampling
- Quota sampling
**Simple random sampling**- Stratified sampling

What is stratified sampling?

**A type of probability sampling**- A type of non-probability sampling
- A type of sampling used in experimental research
- A type of sampling used in survey research

Which of the following is a disadvantage of convenience sampling?

- It is time-consuming
**It may lead to biased results**- It requires a large sample size
- It is expensive

Which type of sampling guarantees that each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected?

**Simple random sampling**- Stratified sampling
- Systematic sampling
- Convenience sampling

What is purposive sampling?

- A type of probability sampling
**A type of non-probability sampling**- A type of sampling used in experimental research
- A type of sampling used in survey research

What is reliability in research?

- The ability of a measure to accurately measure what it is intended to measure
**The consistency and stability of a measure over time and across different raters or conditions**- The degree to which a measure reflects the true state of the phenomenon being measured
- The ability of a measure to detect differences between groups or conditions.

The mode is _______________________________.

**The most frequent observation in a set of data**- The middle observation in a set of data
- The average of all observations in a set of data
- None of the above

What is test-retest reliability?

- The degree to which different items on a measure are related to each other
- The degree to which different raters agree on the scoring of a measure
**The degree to which a measure produces consistent scores over time and across repeated administrations**- The degree to which a measure accurately reflects the construct being measured.

Which of the following is NOT a consideration when drafting questions for a questionnaire?

- The length of the questionnaire
- The wording of the questions
- The format of the questionnaire
**The personal opinions of the researcher**

What is internal consistency reliability?

**The degree to which different items on a measure are related to each other**- The degree to which different raters agree on the scoring of a measure
- The degree to which a measure produces consistent scores over time and across repeated administrations
- The degree to which a measure accurately reflects the construct being measured.

What is validity in research?

**The ability of a measure to accurately measure what it is intended to measure**- The consistency and stability of a measure over time and across different raters or conditions
- The degree to which a measure reflects the true state of the phenomenon being measured
- The ability of a measure to detect differences between groups or conditions.

In questionnaire design, what is the purpose of defining the target population?

- To ensure the questions are easy to understand
- To determine the sampling method
**To ensure that the sample is representative**- To identify the research problem

What is construct validity?

**The degree to which a measure reflects the true state of the phenomenon being measured**- The degree to which a measure is consistent and stable over time and across different raters or conditions
- The degree to which a measure is subjectively perceived as measuring what it is intended to measure
- The degree to which a measure can detect differences between groups or conditions.

What is a questionnaire?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
**A tool for collecting quantitative data**- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

Which of the following measures is used to describe the spread of data?

- Mean
- Median
- Mode
**Standard deviation**

What is an interview?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
- A tool for collecting quantitative data
**A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data**- A tool for collecting observational data

Which of the following is a disadvantage of using online surveys for data collection?

- They are more expensive than other methods
**They have lower response rates than other methods**- They are less secure than other methods
- They are less convenient for respondents

The range of a data set is defined as:

**The difference between the largest and smallest values**- The sum of all the values
- The average of all the values
- The difference between the mean and median

What is an observation?

**A tool for collecting qualitative data**- A tool for collecting quantitative data
- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting self-reported data

What is a focus group?

**A tool for collecting qualitative data**- A tool for collecting quantitative data
- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

Which of the following is a measure of how closely two variables are related?

**Correlation**- Standard deviation
- Range
- Mode

What is the purpose of using a matrix question in questionnaire design?

- To measure the frequency of a behavior
- To measure the intensity of a feeling or opinion
- To measure the accuracy of a measurement
**To group related questions together and make them easier to answer**

What is a survey?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
**A tool for collecting quantitative data**- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

A correlation coefficient of -1 indicates:

- No correlation between the variables
- A positive correlation between the variables
- A negative correlation between the variables
**A perfect positive correlation between the variables**

What is a case study?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
**A tool for collecting quantitative data**- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

Which of the following is a disadvantage of using open-ended questions in a questionnaire?

- They are time-consuming to answer
- They limit the respondent’s options
**They are difficult to analyze statistically**- They may introduce bias

What is a diary study?

**A tool for collecting qualitative data**- A tool for collecting quantitative data
- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

What is a content analysis?

**A tool for collecting qualitative data**- A tool for collecting quantitative data
- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

In questionnaire design, what is the purpose of piloting?

- To gather data on the research topic
- To select the sampling method
**To ensure the questionnaire is easy to understand**- To identify any potential issues with the questionnaire

What is a structured observation?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
**A tool for collecting quantitative data**- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

What is a non-participant observation?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
- A tool for collecting quantitative data
- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
**A tool for collecting observational data**

Which of the following is not a measure of variability?

- Range
- Variance
- Standard deviation
**Mean**

What is a structured interview?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
**A tool for collecting quantitative data**- A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data
- A tool for collecting observational data

Which type of interview is less prone to interviewer bias?

**Structured interview**- Semi-structured interview
- Unstructured interview
- None of the above

What is a semi-structured interview?

- A tool for collecting qualitative data
- A tool for collecting quantitative data
**A tool for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data**- A tool for collecting observational data

What is an open-ended question?

- A question that requires a specific answer
**A question that allows for a range of answers**- A question that is not relevant to the research topic
- A question that is biased

Descriptive statistics is a branch of statistics that deals with the __________ of data.

- Collection
**Organization**- Analysis
- Interpretation

What is a Type I error in hypothesis testing?

**Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true**- Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false
- Rejecting the alternative hypothesis when it is actually true
- Failing to reject the alternative hypothesis when it is actually false

What is a Type II error in hypothesis testing?

- Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true
**Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false**- Rejecting the alternative hypothesis when it is actually true
- Failing to reject the alternative hypothesis when it is actually false

Which of the following is an advantage of structured interviews?

- Flexibility in questioning
- More in-depth responses
**Ease of administration**- None of the above

What is the level of significance in hypothesis testing?

**The probability of making a Type I error**- The probability of making a Type II error
- The probability of making both Type I and Type II errors
- The probability of obtaining the observed result by chance

What is the p-value in hypothesis testing?

**The probability of obtaining the observed result by chance**- The probability of making a Type I error
- The probability of making a Type II error
- The level of significance

Which of the following is a characteristic of structured interviews?

- Limited or no follow-up questions
- Use of open-ended questions
**Standardized questions**- Flexible questioning

What is a one-tailed hypothesis test?

- A test in which the null hypothesis is one-tailed
**A test in which the alternative hypothesis is one-tailed**- A test in which both the null and alternative hypotheses are one-tailed
- A test in which neither the null nor the alternative hypothesis is one-tailed

What is a two-tailed hypothesis test?

- A test in which the null hypothesis is two-tailed
- A test in which the alternative hypothesis is two-tailed
**A test in which both the null and alternative hypotheses are two-tailed**- A test in which neither the null nor the alternative hypothesis is two-tailed

Which type of interview is useful when the topic is sensitive or personal?

- Structured interview
**Semi-structured interview**- Unstructured interview
- None of the above

What is the alternative hypothesis?

- A statement of the expected relationship between two variables
- A statement that there is no significant relationship between two variables
**A statement that there is a significant relationship between two variables**- A statement that there is an inverse relationship between two variables

What is the importance of referencing in a research report?

**To acknowledge the sources of information used in the research**- To provide additional information that is not available in the report
- To provide an opportunity for the researcher to express their own opinion
- To make the report appear longer