This article includes some of the MCQs from Research Methodology.

- ________ is the first step in the research process.
- Collecting data
**Formulating a research question**- Analyzing data
- Drawing conclusion

- Which of the following is an example of qualitative research methods?
- Survey
**Case Study**- Experiment
- Meta-analysis

- What is a hypothesis in research?
- A conclusion drawn from data analysis
- A summary of research findings
- A measurement of data accuracy
**A statement of predicted relationship between variables**

- What is the purpose of a literature review in research?
**To identify the research gaps**- To summarize research findings
- To collect primary data
- To analyze data

- What is a dependent variable in research?
- The variable that is manipulated by the researcher
- The variable that remains constant throughout the research
**The variable that is measured and observed**- The variable that is not relevant to the research question

- What is the purpose of a research proposal?
- To present research findings
**To provide a rationale for the study**- To establish causality
- To guide the data collection process

- What is a research design?
- A plan for data analysis
- A method for data collection
- A statistical technique
**A framework for conducting research**

- What is the purpose of statistical analysis in research?
- To summarize research findings
- To collect primary data
**To draw conclusion from data**- To develop research hypotheses

- What is the appropriate statistical analysis for comparing means between two groups?
- Chi-squared test
- Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
- Regression analysis
**T-test**

- What is the purpose of a control group in an experiment?
**To provide a baseline for comparison**- To receive the experimental treatment
- To control for confounding variables
- To ensure internal validity

- Which of the following is an example of a primary source of data?
- Research article
- Textbook
- Meta analysis
**Interview transcript**

- _________ is the characteristics of qualitative research.
- Large sample size
- Standardize data collection methods
**Emphasis on context and social interactions**- Objectives and detached perspective

- ________ is NOT a common data collection method in qualitative research.
- Participant observation
**Structured interviews**- Content Analysis
- Focus Groups

- ________ is the primary focus of qualitative research.
- Causality
**Understanding the meanings and interpretations of individuals**- Hypothesis testing
- Statistical analysis

- In qualitative research, data collection methods typically include
- Structured questionnaires
- Experiments
- Surveys
**Interviews and Observations**

- Which of the following is an example of a qualitative research question?
- What is the prevalence of depression in college students?
**How does gender influence job satisfaction ?**- What is the relationship between income and happiness?
- What are the factors that contribute to successful weight loss?

- Which of the following research methods is primarily associated with qualitative research?
- Experimental research
- Longitudinal research
**Phenomenology**- Correlation research

- __________ is an example of a quantitative research method.
- Case study
- Ethnography
**Correlational Study**- Phenomenological study

- _________ is the main purpose of a research hypothesis.
**To provide a clear research direction**- To analyze data
- To establish causality
- To summarize research findings

- Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good research question?
- Clear and Focused
- Relevant and significant
- Testable and measurable
**Broad and ambiguous**

- What is a random sample in research?
**A sample that is selected by chance**- A sample that is selected based on specific criteria
- A sample that is selected from population in a systematic way
- A sample that is selected based on convenience

- What is a case study in research?
- A survey of a large population
**An in-depth investigation of a single individual or group**- An experimental design that tests a hypothesis
- An analysis of existing statistical data

- _____________ is a research population.
- The group of people who participate in the study
**The larger group from which the participants are selected**- The variables being studied
- THe data collected in the study

- Which of the following is a measure of central tendency in statistics?
- Standard Deviation
- Correlation Coefficient
**Mean**- Chi-square test

- _____________ is a non-experimental research design.
- Randomized controlled trial
- Quasi-experimental design
**Case Study**- Cross-sectional study

- What is the appropriate statistical test to test the association between two categorical variables in a research study?
- T-test
- ANOVA
- Regression Analysis
**Chi-square test**

- Which statistical test is appropriate to test the difference between proportions of two groups?
- T-tests
- ANOVA
- Chi-square test
**Z-test**

- Which of the following statistical tests is appropriate to test the difference between medians of two groups?
- T-test
- ANOVA
**Wilcoxon rank-sum test**- Regression analysis

- Which of the following statistical tests is appropriate to test the difference between means of two related samples?
- T-test
- ANOVA
- Chi-square test
**Paired-sample test**

- Which of the following statistical tests is appropriate to test the relationship between two continuous variables while controlling other variables?
- T-test
- ANOVA
- Chi-square test
**Regression Analysis**

- What is the main purpose of a pilot study in research?
- To gather primary data
- To establish the sample size
- To test the research hypothesis
**To refine the research methodology**

- __________ is a non-probability sampling technique.
**Convenience Sampling**- Stratified Sampling
- Cluster Sampling
- Simple Random Sampling

- What is the primary purpose of inferential statistics in research?
- To summarize and describe data
- To explore relationships between variables
- To interpret qualitative data
**To test hypotheses and make inferences about a population**

- ________ is NOT a type of research data.
- Primary data
- Secondary data
**Tertiary data**- Meta data

- What is a literature review?
- A summary of book
- A summary of research study
**A summary of the literature on a particular topic**- A summary of a movie

- What is the first step in conducting a literature review?
**Identify the research question**- Identify the study population
- Identify the research hypothesis
- Identify the research methodology

- What is the purpose of a conceptual framework in research?
- To provide a summary of the main concepts related to the research topic
**To establish the theoretical foundation for the research study**- To outline the research design and methods
- To report the findings of the research study

- ________ is NOT a step in the research process.
- Literature review
- Data analysis
**Research question**- Data collection

- Which of the following is NOT a criterion for establishing causality in research?
- Temporal order
- Covariation
**Association**- Control of confounding variables

- What is a research instrument?
- The research question
- The research design
**The data collection method**- The data analysis plan

- ________ is a data analysis plan.
- A plan for collecting data in as research study
**A plan for analyzing data collected in a research study**- A plan for reporting research findings
- A plan for selecting research participants

- Which of the following is an example of qualitative descriptive data?
- Age of participants in a research study
- Gender of participants in a research study
- Scores on a likert scale in a questionnaire
**Responses to open-ended questions in a survey**

- Which of the following is a measure of central tendency?
- Standard Deviation
- Variance
**Median**- Range

- What is the mode in descriptive data analysis?
**The value that appears most frequently in a dataset**- The average of a dataset
- The middle value of a dataset
- The difference between the highest and lowest values in a dataset

- ______________________, is NOT a characteristic of fundamental research.
- It is exploratory in nature.
- It is aimed at developing new theories
**It is focused on solving practical problems**- It is conducted without a specific application

- Which of the following is a type of research bias?
- Descriptive bias
**Sampling bias**- Causal bias
- Inferential bias

- What is recall bias in data collection?
- The tendency of participants to provide socially desirable responses
- The systematic error in measurement instruments
**The distortion of memory in reporting past events**- The influence of the researcher’s expectations on data collection

- How can researcher bias be minimized in data collection?
- Using random sampling techniques
**Double-blind data collection**- Using multiple data collection methods
- Ensuring strict adherence to research protocols

- What is bias in research methodology?
- A measure of central tendency
- A measure of variability
**A systematic error in data collection**- A random error in data collection

- How can researchers minimize bias in data collection?
- By using a small sample size
- By using biased data collection instruments
- By using non-random sampling techniques
**By using appropriate data collection and analysis methods**

References