Digital Market: Concepts and Fundamentals

Digital Market: Concepts and Fundamentals

Digital Marketing Digital Marketing is a contemporary marketing effort using the internet or electronic devices. Digital marketing is also referred to as online marketing or internet marketing.In digital marketing, businesses take advantage of digital channels such as social media, search engines, videos, online displays and other web-based applications to reach the customers and to attract … Read more

Introduction to Microfinance


Introduction Microfinance is a modern concept of financing which is focused on providing small business owners and entrepreneurs access to capital. The complex business environment and changing regulatory requirements do not allow small business owners and entrepreneurs to enjoy traditional financial resources and services from major institutions which means, it is difficult for such parties … Read more

Certainty Equivalent Approach

Certainty Equivalent Approach2

Introduction Decision-making process is always future-oriented i.e. we consider alternatives and make choices for our future actions. All the things we consider for future decisions contain some level of uncertainty and risk. Financial decision making has also a future orientation and involves high uncertainty and such decisions are always a trade-off between risk and return. … Read more

Cooperative Strategies


INTRODUCTION Cooperative nature is an association with other companies to out-perform competitors. There are two cooperative strategies; Collusion and Strategic Alliances. Collusion It is the active cooperation of firms within an industry to reduce output and raise prices in order to get around the normal economic law of supply and demand. Collusion may be explicit, … Read more

What are different Business Strategies ?


Introduction to Business Strategies Business Strategies generally focuses on improving the competitive position of a company,   business unit or products/services within a specific industry. Strategies directly affect the corporate strategies of the company as the business unit’s performance directly reflects the company’s overall performance. Business strategies can be competitive or cooperative. Competitive nature deals with … Read more

Generating Alternative Strategies by Using A TOWS Matrix


Introduction TOWS matrix is the application of SWOT analysis. TOWS Matrix illustrates how the external opportunities and threats facing a particular corporation can be matched with that company’s internal strengths and weaknesses to result in four sets of possible strategic opportunities. Internal Factors ________________ External Factors   Strength (S)   Weaknesses (W) Opportunities (O) SO … Read more

Business Policy: Introduction


INTRODUCTION The history of Business Policy can be traced back to 1911 when Harvard Business School introduced an integrative course in management aimed at providing general management capability. In 1969, the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, a regulatory body for business school, made the course of business policy mandatory requirement for the purpose … Read more

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body established in 1956 by an Act of Parliament no. 60 (with the latest amendment  by Act No. 10 2006). KVIC is functioning under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Government of India. Mahatma Gandhi, Father of the Nation for India, had referred ‘Khadi’ … Read more

Advantages of Credit Ratings

advantages of credit rating

Introduction Credit Rating can be simply defined as a data backed up opinion of rating agency which reflects the ability and willingness of the manager of debt instruments to fulfill its debt obligation when required. In simple terms, credit ratings rank the issuer and debt instruments on the basis of their ability to fulfill the … Read more

Credit Rating Agencies

credit rating agencies

Credit Rating Agencies: Concept A credit rating agency is an independent company that assesses the financial strength of debt instruments and measures the credit worthiness of large scale borrowers. A credit rating agency rate debt instruments issued by the borrower and the rating assigned to a given instrument shows the level of confidence of the … Read more